Saturday, November 25, 2006

Japanese have made the robot in the form of an eyeglobe

Robot-Cyclops Muu Socia looks like one-eyed clyster, have presented at the international exhibition of iatrotechnics to Tokyo (International Modern Hospital Show 2006) the Japanese institute of the advanced telecommunication researches (ATR) together with company Systec Akazawa.

Appearance Muu Socia on medical show - not accident. The robot, and it already its third generation, is designed for supervision for patients and older persons - for this purpose Muu Socia and is necessary an eye-chambers.

It is expected, that "cyber-Cyclops" in the soft case from polymer also can brighten up loneliness of patients - it clumsily moves, carries out some voice commands and something says.

STEREO-twins will show earthmen the invisible Sun

Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory This project should be named Surround or is somehow even more intricate. In fact such solid organization - NASA, such fancy idea - to consider our star from different directions, even with invisible. And thus such banal name - STEREO... But, anyhow, the project has begun activity in space.

So, STEREO (Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory, it it is literally - " the observatory of is solar-terrestrial interactions ") is a pair the next satellites which have gone on October, 26th from a cape Canaveral in Florida on an earth orbit. And, that is interesting, at once together.

This project which has become by result of close cooperation NASA, laboratories of applied physics of university of John Hopkins (Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory) and Goddard Space Flight Center, is directed on research of the Sun.
The main scientific interest, for the sake of which all it do, - crown lets. About one of the largest such events we somehow told, and you, should be, already know, that such flash can appear for astronauts fatally dangerous.

And so, there is nothing surprising that vehicles have sent right now: in fact the new cycle of solar activity has already begun, and to astrophysics now is what to research.
Satellites have been constructed almost one year ago. Originally them planned to send into an orbit in the end of summer. However design defects in one of missile stages have forced to transfer start all over again on the middle of September, and after - on the end of October.

One of the main problems because of whom the solar astrophysics could not receive a full picture, consists that both earth observers, and orbital satellites can see our star only from one point, receiving the flat image.

Basically, a volumetric kind to receive not difficultly - owing to some displacement of an orbital observatory it is possible to glance for an edge of the solar disc, and the Sun rotates, showing all surface.

Problem, however, that all these images, which scientists received earlier, showed the Sun during each moment of time only on the one hand, and another remained inaccessible to the observer.

To find out about that occurs on the invisible party, it was possible only by means of indirect methods.

And here for obtaining simultaneous pictures of a heavenly body from the different parties experts have thought up satellites STEREO (for difference they are named simplly with " observatory A " and " observatory B "), each of which sees only the "" part of the image. But both of them are synchronized, and from each of them it is possible to make a three-dimensional picture of two bidimentional images.

That the image was volumetric enough, both observatories move around of the Earth on the extended elliptical orbits. To carry them in space of scientists have conceived by means of a gravitational field of moon.

Friday, November 24, 2006

Manufacturing of multipurpose robots will be a mainstream in the Japanese industry in XXI century

The Ministry of Economics, trade and industries planning to select at an exhibition of robots spent to Tokyo about 50 best models, to begin their batch production. In opinion of representatives of the ministry, the robotics will be the main direction of the Japanese industry in XXI century.

For a batch production the most perfect models which will use mass demand are selected only. The majority of the models presented at the Tokyo exhibition, still require additional modernizing. Robots should know how to speak on several foreign languages, independently to patrol dangerous sites, to accompany and transport invalids.

On the World's fair of a robotics which will be spent in March, 2005 in three cities of prefecture Aiti, the Ministry of Economics, trade and will present the industry advanced achievements of a domestic robotics.

The ministry will render the target help to manufacturers of robots of new generation and to introduce their development in a batch production in 2006. By way of experiment by 2010 " the society of the future "where robots can coexist with people will be created. The purpose of experiment consists in converting a robotics into one of key industries of the national industry, alongside with its such pillar, as motor industry.

In 2004 on development of a robotics from the state budget the sum at a rate of 3,1 billion yens (25 million 800 thousand dollars) will be chosen.

In February the ministry will present the plan of holding of an exhibition of pre-production models of robots of new generation. Thus the ministry will incur half of expenditures on holding of research and development operations and will ensure full financing development of those models which will be presented at this exhibition.

According to the planned plan, eight robots will be intended for support of older persons and patroling of dangerous sites at the night, nine more robots will make them a backup command, 15 robots will look after children in kindergartens and 20 robots in the form of an invalid armchair will facilitate a life to invalids.

For security of a guarantee of safety at the first stage behind operation of each robot the official will continuously observe, but basically robots should displace and operate independently.

Visitors of an exhibition will see fascinating scenes of game of robots with children, cleaning of dust and conversation with foreign visitors in English and Chinese languages.

Robots for a red planet

On horizon of NASA Mars has loomed. In May and June on the Red planet absolutely identical two robots on sprockets which in January will land in area of equator of a planet will be started. The total cost of the program makes 800 million dollars.

"At the moment and NASA, and are very necessary to all country good news from space, and I consider, that my operation - to give to them such news ", - Steve Skvajers from Kornel university, the principal expert of program Mars Exploration Rover speaks.

The present program is the next attempt of NASA to know, whether there was sometime a life on Mars, to investigate its climate and geological structure and to prepare landing to Mars the person.

As representatives of NASA have stated, robots are investigated, first of all, by geological data who can prove, that in the remote past on a planet there were essential stores of water and an atmosphere, suitable for a life.

Modern robots remind the predecessor, device Sojourner who has landed on Mars in 1997 a little. Images of this small robot similar to a toy creeping on a planet of color of a rust, are known all over the world.

However then the main task was to show a level of development of technique, the serious scientific purposes before expedition{dispatch} it was not put, Peter Tejzinger tells, project-manager Mars Exploration Rover. Sojourner could depart from a place of a landing of all on some kilometers. And new robots can work in radius of two thirds of mile from a place of a landing, that considerably expands opportunities of research of a surface of Mars.

For their flight prepare in special locations with a clean atmosphere in space center Kennedy. Each device weighs about 400 pounds (180 kg). Robots are equipped by several scientific instruments, for what by the right name them laboratories on sprockets. Panoramic 3-D the chamber, giving the image of a high resolution, will help scientists to investigate in detail a landscape of Mars and to collect by means of robots exemplars of rocks and ground. Each robot is supplied by three types of spectrometers which will allow to determine structure of finds.

All instruments are built in "hands" of the robot on which ends cutting lobes for transiting through high layers of rocks and study of their internal structure are.

Gagarin Jury Alekseevich - The biography

Gagarin BIRTH DATE AND BIRTH-PLACE: Was born on March, 9th, 1934 in the city of Gzhatsk (nowadays Gagarin) Gzhatsk (nowadays Gagarinsk) area of Smolensk area in family of the collective farmer. The father - Alexey Ivanovich Gagarin. Mother - Anna Timofeevna Gagarin.

MARITAL STATUS: the Wife - Valentine Ivanovna Gagarin (in girlhood Goryacheva). Children: daughters Elena (р. On April, 10th, 1959) and Galina (р. On March, 7th, 1961).

EDUCATION: 1951 - a vocational school № 10 in a Lyubertsy (the Moscow area) on a speciality of the former-metallurgist (with distinction); 1951 - school of young workers in a Lyubertsy (the Moscow area); 1955 - the Saratov industrial technical school (with distinction); 1955 - the Saratov aeroclub; 1957 - the First Chkalovsk military aviation school of pilots of a name of K.E.Voroshilova in the city of Orenburg; 1968 - Military-engineering academy of a name of N.E.Zhukovskogo in Moscow (with distinction).

SERVICE In the SOVIET ARMY: With 1955 - in the ranks of the Soviet Army. Since 1957 before transfer in group of astronauts served as the fighter pilot in aviation to a regiment of Northern fleet. « The military pilot of 1-st class » had qualification.

SPACE ACTIVITY: Since 1960 - in group of astronauts (the Order of the Commander-in-chief of the Air Forces on transfer from March, 3rd, 1960; actually since March, 11th, 1960). On April, 12th, 1961 has made the first-ever flight in space on a spacecraft "East" in 1 hour of 48 minutes. Since May, 23rd, 1961 - the commander of group of astronauts. Since December, 20th, 1963 - the deputy chief of Center of preparation of astronauts. The doubler of the pilot of a spacecraft "Soyuz" (Vladimir Mihajlovich of MOSQUITOES) at start on April, 23rd, 1967.

PUBLIC WORK: the Deputy of the Supreme body of the USSR of 6-th and 7-th convocations. A member of Central Committee VLKSM (he was elected at 14-th and 15-th congresses VLKSM). The chief of a non-staff department of astronautics of the newspaper « the Red Star » (with 1964). The president of the Society of the советско-Cuban friendship. The honorary member of the Society « Finland - the USSR ». With mission of the world and friendship has visited many countries of the world.

AWARDS And HONORARY TITLES: the Hero of Soviet Union (the Decree of Presidium of the Supreme body of the USSR from April, 14th, 1961). The hero of Socialist Work of Czechoslovak Socialist Republic. The hero of Socialist Work of National Republic Bulgaria (the Decision of Ministerial council NRB from May, 23rd, 1961). The hero of Work of Democratic Republic Vietnam. Owner of Lenin's award (the Decree of Presidium of the Supreme body of the USSR from April, 14th, 1961), George Dimitrova's award (the Decision of Ministerial council NRB from May, 23rd, 1961), an award «Grunvald cross I of a degree » (the Decision of State Council PNR from July, 20th, 1961), award «Playa-Hiron» (the Decision of Ministerial council of Republic Cuba from July, 24th, 1961), an award the Banner of Hungarian National Republic I of a degree with diamonds (the Decision of Presidium VNR from August, 21st, 1961), an award « the Necklace of Nile » (the Decree of the President of the Integrated Arabian Republic from January, 31st, 1962), the Large tape of the African star (the Decree of the president of Liberia from February, 6th, 1962), an award Charles Marx (GDR), the Star II degrees (Indonesia). « The pilot-cosmonaut of the USSR » (the Decree of Presidium of the Supreme body of the USSR from April, 14th, 1961) is awarded ranks. Owner of a gold badge of the Central committee of Communist party of Finland, a gold medal of the British society of interplanetary messages (the solution of Council of a society from June, 11th, 1961), a medal « For merits in the field of aerostation » Air force forces of Brazil (the order of the Commander-in-chief of the Air Forces of Brazil from July, 29th, 1961), a memorable gold medal of government Avtrii (the solution of the Federal government of Austria from May, 10th, 1962), a gold medal of a name of K.E.Tsiolkovskogo the USSR, a medal de Lavo (FAI), a gold medal and the honourable diploma of the International association « the Person in space », a gold medal and the honourable diploma of the Italian association of astronautics, a gold medal « For an outstanding difference » and the honourable diploma of the Royal aeroclub of Sweden, the Large gold medal and diploma FAI, a gold medal cities Saint-Deniss (France), Columbus's medal (Italy). It is awarded premiums Galeber on astronautics. The honourable citizen of the Russian cities of Kaluga (the solution of the Kaluga Executive Committee of the City Soviet of People's Deputies from June, 13th, 1961), Novocherkassk, Smolensk, Saratov, the Ukrainian cities of Vinnitsas, Sevastopol, the Azerbaijan city of Sumgait, the Bulgarian cities of Sofia, Pernik, Plovdiv, the Greek city of Athenes (the solution of the Athenian municipality from February, 12th, 1962), the Cyprian cities of Famagustas, Limassol, the French city Saint-Denis, the Czech city to the ФУСЎюбЯ¬С-hothouse, the French city Saint-Denis. The honorary member of the International academy of astronautics (with 1966) . A life member of Club of researchers of space of faculty of physics of university in the city of Laknau, India (the solution of Council of club from November, 30th, 1961).On eternal storage gold keys from a gate of the Egyptian cities of Cairo and Alexandria have been handed over. Gagarin's name names a crater on moon and a planetoid (1772 Gagarin).

National spaceship "SpaceShipTwo" has opened unearthly potential

Wow! Right now we start to envy these lucky beggars. To these space tourists of the future with the ticket for $200 thousand in a pocket. Envy eating when you see these armchairs on which they will sit. These windows in which they will look. And in general - all this ship, on which and on which they will fly. God, you only look at this ship!

The breadboard model of ship SpaceShipTwo (SS2) in a cut on September, 28th was shown to public by the British millionaire sir Richard Branson. The head of empire Virgin as a whole and companies Virgin Galactic in particular has arranged presentation at festival NextFest, traditional a miracle-forum of American magazine Wired.

To spectators have been shown "soaring" above a stage SpaceShipOne and a breadboard model of the successor full-scale - with the right board opened that the interior developed not by somebody was visible, and Philippe Starck which is also the author of trade mark Virgin Galactic.

New SS2, also known under name VSS Enterprise, unlike SS1, is not going to beat any records. Its applicability - exclusively space tourism.

Therefore the ship approximately is three times larger than the predecessor and eight person contains: six passengers (in interior with two lines on three armchairs in everyone) and two pilots (in the cabin separated from interior).

" Now it is strange to me to think of this, but in 12 months we shall promulgate true spaceship and right after this we shall begin test flights ", - has informed collapsed in one of futuristic armchairs Branson.

SpaceShipTwo, as well as the second generation of self-summer-разгонщика WhiteKnightTwo (WK2) which will lift SS2 on height of 18,2 thousand meters, builds the company legendary Burt Rutan Scaled Composites, is more exact - her "daughter" Spaceship Company.

All works are almost completed, and the test flights planned on the beginning of 2008, will transit in the Californian Mohave desert.

The sea star-robot studies to go and limp

Lets take for an example a dog who had interrupted one paw. It is improbable, that dog will rise as driven or will fall to the ground. More likely dog, having taken advantage of three healthy paws, will escape in a safe place. And here for the majority of independent robots damage of a leg of death similarly to. However, one machine on an example of a dog managed to something to be learned.

To Troy the American researchers - Josh Bongard from university of Vermont (UVM), and also Victor Zykov and Course Hod Lipson from Cornell University - have published in magazine Science article in which have described the four-footed robot similar to a starfish capable without assistance to recover from "wound" by means of modelling.

" We still have not given this robot of the official name, but among themselves usually we call it the Starfish, and we does not confuse, that at the true starfish five legs, instead of four, - has told Bongard. - Generally, the alive starfish is much better than our robot regarding restoration after damages because she actually can grow up anew legs ".

Authors of work write, that their machine uses intercoupling " perception - actuating " to study an own structure and subsequently to use this " self-model " for movement. And when the part of a leg is removed, the robot adapts the model for creation alternative " gait ". This concept can help with design of new difficult machines and throw light on " self-modelling " at animals.

In other words, instead of giving the robot a set of rigid instructions, researchers allow the machine" to open own nature " - to solve, how to operate themselves: first the robot learns itself to go, and in case of damage - to limp.

" The majority of robots has the fixed model - the program incorporated by engineers, - explains Lipson. - We for the first time have shown, how the model can appear inside of the robot. It makes machines adaptive at a new level because it is possible to set the task of them, not caring about creation of the program for its performance.

So, at the first stage the robot "knows", it consists of what parts, however "does not understand", how they are arranged and as them to use for performance of the main task - movements forward.

"At first the robot at all does not know, on what it is similar. Everything, that is known to it, - it can be the snake, a tree or something else ", - explains Lipson.

To understand itself to the machine the scientific method helps: the theory - experiment - the advanced theory - other experiment, and so on.

As a result the robot starts to create a series of computer models of own arrangement, jointing the parts in the casual image. After that the machine develops control words, which it could give engines to check up the created models.

Then there comes the key moment: the robot chooses control words to receive result depending on which will estimate the created model. Then the machine executes these control words and reconsiders model. It is a cycle 16 times repeat, and as a result the robot tries to move from a place.

" The machine does not have any uniform model of - it simultaneously has a set of variants which compete with each other ", - speaks Lipson. As a result the robot develops awkward, but quite functional gait, and the most effective variant while is the way at which the robot bases on "stomach", tightens the body, makes a start "back" legs, rolls over, rolled. It is difficult to describe words, but it is really similar to movement of a starfish.

But here engineers delete a part of one leg, and the robot, "understanding", that cannot move, anew starts to build and check 16 models "to invent" new gait. With all this "starfish" is helped by the virtual version itself ", which the robot builds to observe own movements. Each time when the machine makes a step, it updates this model "hurriedly" and uses it for a following step.

Bongard considers, that the robot, somewhat, "is conscious" at a primitive level because it " thinks of itself ". Researchers, meanwhile, recognize, that the robot in itself idle time, and successes while modest, but the basic algorithm can be already applied in much more difficult machines to allow them to adapt to changes in a surrounding medium and independently to repair itself, replacing details.

" Robots on other planets should be able to continue the mission without human intervention in case of, If they are damaged and cannot inform on a problem to the Earth ", - has noticed Bongard, and it is difficult to disagree with it.

Thursday, November 23, 2006

The pointed mountains have rejuvenated the Moon unknown gas

The moon which seems absolutely fallen asleep and lifeless, earlier showed attributes of volcanic activity.

As it was found out, it was more recently - to astronomical measures,
Certainly. Important that a difference between former dating and new
It has appeared serious - the whole three orders!

In work under direction of professor Peter H. Schultz, there is no time participated in project Deep Impact,
Scientists of Planetary Science Institute and Brown's University took participated.

Researchers have concentrated the attention on area under name Ina - in this area in the extent about three kilometers
There are mountains of a volcanic origin. On the Moon astronomers could find out this place in the pictures received during missions Apollo.

By the way, basically in work photos of those times were used.
These given scientists have combined with the newest spectrometer data.

So, about Ina. The first, that Schultz's attention,-surprising clearness of a relief has drawn. " These sharp as edges, mountains, - such comparison was used by the professor, explaining the interest to this zone, - could not remain in such kind long. They should collapse for any 50 million years ".

On the Earth the wind and water quickly enough would destroy similar structures.
On the Moon as we know, such factors are not present, but it is exposed to continuous bombardment by space objects like tiny asteroids. And it leads to practically same effect, as terrestrial erosion.

Comparing exact scale representations Ina with other sites of a lunar surface (much more "shabby"), scientists have estimated age of these mountains approximately in 2 million years.

On Mars it is not audible loud shouts.

Amanda Hanford and Lyle Long from Pennsylvania State University have lead computer modelling passages of sound waves to a martian atmosphere.

Proceeding from low density of an atmosphere of Mars, it is already possible to assume, that the sound will extend there badly.

However the American scientists have executed numerical experiment which has allowed in more details and to describe precisely travel of a sound on Mars.

They have filled a virtual box with a virtual atmosphere in amount of 10 million molecules of carbonic gas (The basic component of an atmosphere of the Red planet), movement of each of which paid off a computer.

The modelled sound wave passed from one end of a box on another.
The computer has shown, that a loud sound which on the Earth it is easy travel on distance in some kilometers, completely will calm down after passage of several tens meters on Mars.

Even shrill squeal of a petrol lawn-mower there would be absolute silence already through 100 meters, authors of research confirm.

It, probably, should be considered to TV men who simulate landing people to Mars in Canada with all possible credibility.

It is possible to listen to a roar of the Big Explosion on the Internet

Professor John Cramer from university University of Washington is convinced that the sound of the Big Explosion was similar to noise of the jet airplane, flying by at night above your house at height of 30 meters.

Cramer 11 years are engaged in researches of the Big Explosion which has happened 13 billion years ago. On "prints" of Explosion - to microchanges which it has left after itself in temperature of a space - Cramer
has restored its sounding and has laid out this noise in the Internet on this page. Record lasts 100 seconds.

For gathering "prints" by means of satellite NASA a number of experiments on measurement of levels of space radiation has been lead.

Reconstruction of a sound of the Big Explosion is a part of the project under the name "Boomerang".

Scientists have found out the closed community of the bacteria living on depth of 2,8 kilometers under the ground. Until recently they have been absolutely isolated from a surface and as has appeared, relied on uranium ores as an energy source for a life.

This opening have made by Tullis Onstott from university of Princeton, Liza Pratt from university of Indiana in Bloomington (Indiana University, Bloomington) and a lot of other authors from the several scientific organizations of the USA, Canada, Taiwan and Germany.

"The rocky bark of the Earth actually is not experienced on depths more 1km below a surface. Organisms which we describe in this work, live in completely different world, in comparison with what we know on a surface ", - Liza Pratt speaks.

At once we shall tell: bacteria which live in the subsoil waters exuding from the big depth, or in others environments, - not news. However till now remains to unknown persons, whether these underground microorganisms have been rather recently brought from a surface and now die out, or they - old and permanent residents of so unusual inhabitancy.

However, opening of last years have forced biologists to reconsider representations about an opportunity of a life in the most improbable conditions.

It is enough to recollect almost immortal bacteria which live in the breed laying on 800 meters below a level of a bottom of ocean, the surprising photosynthetic bacterium living near of geothermal sources on ocean bottom where there is no sunlight, and also - bacteria of lake the East.

Now the history of deep communities has received interesting continuation. Authors of work researched new, filled water, a break on one of gold mines about Johannesburg. 54 days they sampled some the water filtered mine from the big depth.

The analysis of DNA has shown presence at tests of water of several kinds of bacteria among which the new kind dominated over department Firmicutes.

It is necessary to tell, not the first opening of bacteria in mines of the republic of South Africa - in 2002 we informed it on the same find. But, first, beginners live even more deeply, than those bacteria that has been found earlier, and secondly (and this main thing) - new work of researchers has slightly opened a veil of secret above a source of their food.

Scientists have found out, that in the closed underground environment of bacterium Firmicutes play the same role, that on a surface play photosynthesizing organisms. They acquire a certain primary energy to give it further to all members of community.

On a surface as the primary source of energy for all alive we see beams of the Sun. Plants accumulate the weight due to photosynthesis, animals eat plants and so on.

And here under the ground, authors of work confirm, as a primary energy source radiation of uranium ores serves. It splits water into hydrogen and oxygen, and also promotes formation of sulfates from minerals containing sulfur.

And, as has shown research, that new kind Firmicutes, that scientists have found in a break, uses for the feed a combination of hydrogen and sulfates, and waste of ability to live of this bacterium already are a source of food for other microorganisms of the given break.

The analysis of age of a break in a combination to the genetic analysis of bacteria have shown, that they completely have been isolated from the ground relatives from 3 up to 25 million years ago.

But as superficial bacteria have got there for the first time as have adapted and have managed to colonize the area laying so deeply within the limits of a bark of the Earth, - remains secret.